It’s no secret to anyone that Rome is a top destination for archaeology buffs. From the Colosseum to the ruins of the ancient aqueducts scattered around the city, there is no city like Rome that better fits the moniker of an open-air museum. Our selection of the most interesting ancient Roman ruins will help you get around the precious sites that gave shape to the sophisticated Roman civilization.
Even admitting that there is hardly a site better than another, one can’t really deny that with a limited time, making a choice becomes necessary. Here are our suggestions of some pretty amazing archaeological sites in Rome you should include on your bucket list. Let’s dig in!
Table of Contents
- 1 Map of the most important ancient ruins in Rome
- 2 Fantastic archaeological sites to visit in Rome
- 2.1 Colosseum
- 2.2 Roman Forum and Palatine Hill
- 2.3 Baths of Caracalla
- 2.4 Mausoleum of Augustus
- 2.5 Teatro di Marcello
- 2.6 Portico di Ottavia
- 2.7 Vicus Caprarius
- 2.8 Aqua Virgo Ancient Ruins
- 2.9 San Clemente Basilica
- 2.10 Santa Cecilia in Trastevere Basilica
- 2.11 Vatican Necropolis
- 2.12 Hadrian Mausoleum
- 2.13 Parco degli Acquedotti
- 2.14 Sant’Agnese Fuori le Mura Complex
- 2.15 St. Paul Outside the Walls Undergrounds
- 2.16 Stadium of Domitian
- 2.17 Rome’s Catacombs
- 2.18 Rome’s Mithra Temples
- 2.19 Pyramid of Caestius
- 2.20 Trajan’s Markets
- 2.21 Domus Aurea
- 2.22 Circus Maximus
- 2.23 Domus Romane of Palazzo Valentini
- 2.24 Diocletian Baths at Museo Nazionale Romano
- 2.25 Crypta Balbi
- 2.26 Largo Argentina
- 2.27 Insula of the Ara Coeli
Map of the most important ancient ruins in Rome
Fantastic archaeological sites to visit in Rome
Impossible not to start with the Colosseum. Arguably the most popular site in all of the city and the first landmark everyone rushes to, a visit to the Colosseum is a must for every first-timer.
A mighty amphitheater erected in the 1st century, this is where gory shows and fights between gladiators and gladiators against wild animals took place to please emperors and ordinary citizens.
There are many types of Colosseum tours, depending on how much you want to see, how much you are willing to spend and whether you are interested in accessing spaces usually closed to the public or staying within the general areas.
Roman Forum and Palatine Hill
Right next to the Colosseum and often included in the same tours are the Roman Forum and the Palatine Hill, two of the most important archaeological sites in Rome.
The cluster of buildings that includes temples, stores, and funerary altars were once the pulsing heart of ancient Rome. Now we can visit the forum and even see where Julius Caesar was cremated and where Romans still bring fresh flowers to his altar.
The Palatine Hill is believed to be the first settlement where Rome was founded and is a fantastic place to see ancient Roman imperial villas.
Together with the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Palatine Hill are the largest ancient site in central Rome. To visit, I recommend booking your ticket online especially if it’s high season such as summer or December.
Baths of Caracalla
A mighty witness to Romans’ love for taking care of themselves and enjoying some spa time, the Baths of Caracalla are great to visit and a fantastic hint to how gorgeous they must have been back in the day.
Mosaics, ornamental statues, arches, and vaults were part of the decorations of the different areas from the gym to the calidarium to the tepidarium.
The baths included also a library where the spa-goers could relax and part of the complex is Rome’s largest Mithra temple located underground.
I find the Baths of Caracalla one of the most fascinating ancient sites in Rome. It’s huge and well-preserved so that you can walk around the different rooms and halls, understand how they were set up and what was the path and routine.
Don’t miss visiting underground to see where the slaves would stay to continuously feed the furnaces with wood so that the upper floors and water would always stay warm.
Mausoleum of Augustus
Reopened in March 2021 after 14 years of renovation, the Mausoleum of Augustus is the monumental tomb of one of the most important figures of imperial Rome. A first circular corridor runs all around the central body where the funerary urns were kept, likely including also Augustus’ urn.
The largest circular tomb of the ancient world, this grand mausoleum reminds us of the Etruscan funerary monuments and was built by the same emperor as a celebration of defeating Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium.
This is the funerary mausoleum of the Gens Julia-Claudia dynasty and some of the illustrious members that were buried here include Augustus himself, Marcello, his nephew who died prematurely, Livia, Augustus’ wife, emperor Tiberium, emperor Caligula and his mother, and emperor Nerva, even though belonging to the Flavia dynasty.
During our tour, we visited all the floors of the mausoleum and could see how it was adapted to other purposes throughout the centuries when local noble families interred the main body to make different uses out of the ancient structure.
This is how the mausoleum became a stronghold first, under the Colonna family, it was covered by a garden rooftop by the Soderini family, and even transformed into an amphitheater by the Portuguese-born Correa clan.
Make sure you read our selection of the most important buildings in Rome.
Teatro di Marcello
The building of Teatro di Marcello (the Theater of Marcellus) started under the rule of Julius Caesar and ended with his nephew Augustus. In 13 BC it was given its name as a tribute to Augustus’ nephew who died in Baiae near Naples in 27 BC.
Erected in the Campo Marzio area where, traditionally, theater plays had already been taking place, the Theater of Marcellus occupied an area of the Circus Flaminius where peasants and ordinary citizens participated in the city’s legislative and judiciary gatherings.
All around, porticoes and temples were erected similar to other peasant areas such as the Aventine Hill and the Forum Boarium. When Christianity took over, the theater was abandoned and used as a stronghold by patrician families. Today it can only be visited from the outside.
You can visit the Theater of Marcellus after a tour of the Colosseum or the Capitoline Museums and then, just crossing the small passageway of the original Roman pavement behind it, you will end up in the Portico d’Ottavia in the Jewish Ghetto.
Portico di Ottavia
Part of the same archaeological site of the Theater of Marcellus, Portico di Ottavia will introduce you to the Jewish Quarter. Built by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in 146 BC after his victory that resulted in turning Macedonia into a Roman province.
The sumptuous Porticus of Octavia was overlooking the Circus Flaminius from where triumphal processions would start. The beautiful Porticus included two large temples, one devoted to Juno Regina and one to Jupiter Stator.
The whole structure was later rebuilt by Augustus between 27 and 23 BC and named after his sister Octavia. In 203 AD, the Porticus of Octavia is renovated again by emperor Septimius Severus and his changes are most of the vestiges we can see today.
Originally, the structure was raised on a podium and included two temples, two libraries (one Greek and one Latin), and a Curia, the area for public gatherings.
The front facade featured at its center a monumental gateway in the form of propylaea as it was in Greek temples or buildings. In 19 AD an arch was built in honor of Germanicus right beside the propylaea.
Inside, the temple was like a museum hosting several works of art.
In the 8th century, they built the adjacent Sant’Angelo Church partially covering the northern part of the propylaea.
Today, the Porticus of Octavia is nicely nestled inside the Jewish Quarter, making it one of the easiest archaeological sites in Rome to visit. The site is open from 9 am to 6 pm (7 pm in summer) and you don’t need to book to enter. Being so close to a modern neighborhood, you can either visit before or after a delicious Roman Kosher meal.
Vicus Caprarius is a great and little-known archaeological site in Rome in the very city center, a stone’s throw from the Trevi Fountain. I, myself, discovered it recently and was very pleasantly surprised. Among the names they gave to this site is “city of water” (la città dell’acqua) and once inside, it’s easy to understand why.
Set up on the cistern of Aqua Virgo, the ancient aqueduct that through its branches and new parts supplies water to the Trevi Fountain and other important fountains in Rome.
Even though water is really an important feature of this archaeological site in central Rome, it’s not the only thing you will see as also other parts of the neighborhood have been dug in the area.
Aqua Virgo Ancient Ruins
More than in a single site, the remains of Aqua Virgo ancient aqueduct are ancient Roman ruins scattered around the city. Apart from the site mentioned above where is the aqueduct’s cistern, two of the best places to see this ancient piping system are next to the Trevi Fountain in Via del Nazareno 9 or on the underground floor of La Rinascente shopping mall in Via del Tritone. In both places, you can see the arches of the waterway.
To access the ruins in Via del Nazareno you need to call Rome municipality at 060608 and the visit is paid (4€ per person), while to see the ruins inside the department store is free.
The experience inside La Rinascente is very interesting because along with the ruins, a multimedia installation runs repeatedly and tells visitors the story of the area and of the other ancient Roman remains that were found here including a domus, an insula, and parts of other aqueducts.
These were all re-buried but archaeologists managed to study them and gather the information we can learn via the multimedia show.
San Clemente Basilica
Just behind the Colosseum, San Clemente is a medieval basilica steeped in history gifting us with a fascinating experience. Before making your way underground, take a tour around the street-level church for some austere ecclesiastic architecture.
Time to dive into some ancient history, now, visiting the early-Christian 4th-century basilica under the medieval one and taking a walk around an ancient Roman neighborhood.
In these ancient Roman ruins, you will see a magnificent example of the Mithra temple and school, the archaeological site of the Roman mint, and the tiny alleys of an authentic Roman district.
San Clemente Basilica is one of those precious Roman ancient sites to visit that are also easy to reach because a short stroll away from the Colosseum. Unfortunately, it’s not allowed to take pictures.
Santa Cecilia in Trastevere Basilica
Hands-down one of my favorite experiences in Trastevere, visiting the undergrounds of Santa Cecilia Basilica will reveal an ancient domus complete with baths, an insula, and the entrance to a taberna (shop). On your way around one of the most interesting ancient Roman ruins, you will also see pieces of a mosaic floor and remains of working tools and jars.
Between the modern church and the ancient Roman findings, visitors will marvel at the arches, vaults, and pillars of the beautiful crypt where the tomb of the saint is kept. Before leaving the area, check if there is a long queue standing in front of Da Enzo al 29, one of Trastevere’s best restaurants and if there isn’t, enjoy a fantastic traditional Roman meal.
If you decide to visit the Vatican, you will soon realize that there are so many places to see that you can hardly do it in one day. However, if you can afford some extra time or if you are an archaeology buff, the ancient Roman necropolis under St. Peter’s Basilica won’t leave you unimpressed.
Sprawling besides the circus emperor Caligula built on the gardens he had inherited from his mother Agrippina that later became Nero’s Circus where Christians were persecuted and where Peter was allegedly killed, a tour around the necropolis will show a great deal of Roman and early-Christian history. I’ve been once but wouldn’t mind visiting again since there is so much to learn and understand.
Known as Castel Sant’Angelo, the scenic mausoleum on the banks of the river is also known for having been the papal residence and public prison. But it was built as the funerary monument to emperor Hadrian and a visit shows the centuries of history and kingdoms Rome has endured. Plus, a beautiful view of Saint Peter’s dome.
Due to the many layers of history that the Hadrian Mausoleum went through and the many functions it covered, during your visit, you will see remnants from very different periods, not just from imperial times, when it was built.
Parco degli Acquedotti
If you have ever thought about studying or reading about the fantastic feats of public engineering represented by the ancient Roman aqueducts, a visit to southern Rome’s Parco degli Acquedotti along the Appian Way will be utterly fascinating.
With the juxtaposition of six of the main 11 waterways such as Aquae Marcia, Tepula, Iulia, Claudia, Anio Novus, and Anio Vetus (the latter only underground), you can enjoy your visit to one of the largest ancient sites in Rome with a walk or by renting a bike. This is a lovely park to relax also for families with kids and you can either visit independently or by joining a private guided tour.
Very close, and somehow connected to the experience is also Parco di Tor Fiscale where Aqua Claudia and Marcia intersect in two places and Aquae Tepula and Iulia that cross them forming a polygonal shape. This area is called Barbaric Camp because it’s where the Ostrogoths settled when they besieged Rome in 537.
Sant’Agnese Fuori le Mura Complex
The beautiful and historically layered Sant’Agnese Fuori Le Mura Complex lies in Via Nomentana and is one of the must-see ancient Roman sites. All around the modern church are important early-Christian sites that include large catacombs, a graveyard, the ruins of a 4th-century basilica, the crypt where the young martyr Sant’Agnese is buried, and the 4th-century Mausoleum of Costanza, the daughter of Constantine the Great.
The strong devotion Costanza felt for Sant’Agnese martyr was what pushed to her build this complex. It’s thanks to her, in fact, that we have the archaeological Roman ruins of the 4th-century basilica as well as her own funerary monument beautifully decorated with the finest mosaics. Whether you are after art or history, the complex of Sant’Agnese Fuori Le Mura is one of those ancient Roman ruins you don’t want to miss.
St. Paul Outside the Walls Undergrounds
Underneath the important Basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura is a vast ancient Roman site that you can access from the cloister of the church. This is a very interesting archaeological area because you can wander around it and see vestiges from different eras.
Starting from the earliest ecclesiastic complex dating back to the 5th and 6th centuries, you will also view the remains of some houses historians think are from a project by Pope Symmachus to give shelter to the poor people of the area.
Access to the Basilica is free of charge, but to enter the cloister that gives you also access to the archaeological site costs 4€.
Stadium of Domitian
Have you noticed that Piazza Navona has an oval shape? Wondering why? Because it was built on top of a vast stadium wanted by emperor Domitian in an effort to shift his fellow citizens’ interest from the gory shows of the Colosseum to more well-behaved Greek sports disciplines.
The imperial effort went unsuccessful for the most part, but the remains we can see today from Via di Tor Sanguigna of Domitian’s Stadium show a finely decorated theater with carvings and ornamental statues. Visitors can also watch an interesting representation of how both the stadium and the city of Rome were at the time of Domitian.
Even though scattered all around the city, I gather Rome’s Catacombs in one paragraph because they are quite a lot and belong to pretty much the same period of time, the early Christianity in the city.
From Priscilla Catacombs near Villa Ada Park to the huge San Callisto’s in the Appian Way, visiting Roman ancient burial sites is very fascinating to understand an important part of the local history and society in what it concerns both the Christian persecutions, the cult of the dead and the transition from paganism to Christianity.
Rome’s Mithra Temples
Similar to the Catacombs, also the sanctuaries devoted to the Persian god Mithra are several in Rome so even though placed in several locations, I think it’s less confusing to gather them under the same roof.
Apart from the one mentioned above located below San Clemente Basilica, most Mithra temples are underground and often open to the public only after previous booking and request to the Council (060608) or to a certified guide. Those that are worth a visit are the ones of the Baths of Caracalla, the Circus Maximus and underneath Palazzo Barberini.
Pyramid of Caestius
Located in the Testaccio neighborhood near Ostiense, Rome’s Pyramid is pretty difficult not to notice since it’s huge and stands out from all the other buildings in the area. It was built by Caius Cestius between 18 and 12 BC at a time when the Egyptian style was very popular in Rome.
Unfortunately, it’s not always open so if you want to enter, you should call Rome municipality at 060608 for inquiries. Otherwise, you can go see it from outside and maybe enter the adjacent Protestant Cemetery where you will also stumble upon the sweet cats of the Pyramid’s colony that often jump into the graveyard to relax.
At this site, you will be visiting an archaeological area and a museum, the permanent exhibition of Imperial Fora, the huge archaeological park along Via dei Fori Imperiali connecting Piazza Venezia with the Colosseum.
The area housed shops and administration offices and what we call the Trajan’s Markets was where they managed all the activities related to the Trajan’s Forum. The tour includes traditional and interactive panels as well as multimedia presentations showing how the Imperial Fora were in their heyday.
You will see parts of decorations, pillars, temples, columns, sculptures, capitals from all the imperial fora including the ones of Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Nerva, apart from Trajan’s one. As a big perk, when visiting this archaeological site, you can also enter the ruins of Trajan’s Forum.
Relive the splendor of Nero’s Domus Aurea he built for himself after the devastating fire that in 64 AD destroyed much of Rome’s city center. This was the sumptuous home emperor Nero built for himself and included a large complex of gardens and other areas destined for the entertainment of the family or for residential purposes.
Occupying a surface of more than 50 hectares over the Palatine and the Esquiline Hills, according to historians, the Domus Aurea was the largest and most opulent residential mansion ever built in Rome.
Even though after Nero’s death his successors tried to erase everything linked to him also by looting its residence from all its decorations, today it’s possible to visit what’s left of it and see how it was back in the day thanks to the immersive multimedia Domus Aurea Experience. Here for more info.
Not far from the Colosseum, the Circus Maximus was a huge oval-shaped racecourse for chariots. Today is mainly used as a park, for relaxing, and running, and also for public events such as concerts, New Year’s celebrations, and for festivals and activities the council organizes on the occasion of Rome’s birthday on April 21st.
Since on the actual site there is no illustrative panel, a nice way to enjoy your visit and see how it looked like back in its heyday is to join the recent Circo Massimo Experience sponsored by Rome Council, a tour of the place with the aid of Zeiss VR devices for multimedia reconstruction. Click here for more info on timing, prices, and how to book.
Nearby, you can visit the Baths of Caracalla and, if you happen on the weekend, you can visit one of the best food markets in Rome, Mercato Campagna Amica al Circo Massimo (Via di S. Teodoro 74).
Domus Romane of Palazzo Valentini
Not far from Piazza Venezia is Palazzo Valentini (Via Foro Traiano 85), a 16th-century palace now the seat of Provincia di Roma. In its undergrounds, it’s possible to visit the ruins of an ancient Roman domus, a patrician house belonging to a powerful family from imperial times, probably of a senator, that still preserves mosaics, colorful flooring, and finely decorated walls, and shows even the remains of a private thermal bath.
Diocletian Baths at Museo Nazionale Romano
Museo Nazionale Romano is a museum in Rome spread into several locations. The main one is next to Stazione Termini and is staged all around the huge Diocletian Baths, the ruins of which you can visit during your tour. The museum itself, even though not an archaeological site, displays arguably the world’s largest collection of ancient Roman findings, tools, mosaics, decorations and more.
On the other hand, Crypta Balbi is located in Via delle Botteghe Oscure between Largo Argentina and Piazza Venezia. Standing right next to the theater Lucius Cornelius Balbo built in the 13th century BC, the crypt was a covered porch to serve as a protection for the citizens waiting to enter the nearby theater in case of rain or as a refreshing point for the breaks during the plays.
Largo di Torre Argentina is an important sacred area of Ancient Rome consisting of four large temples. One of the first temples built here dates back to the 3rd century BC and was commissioned by the naval commander Gaius Lutatius Catulus after his victory against the Carthaginians.
The second temple was erected in the 2nd century BC at the request of Quintus Lutatius Catulus and lies near the oldest of all the temples of Largo Argentina, the one devoted to Feronia, ancient Sabine divinity, built between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Largo Argentina is also famous for being the place where important Roman statesman and commander Julius Caesar was murdered and for hosting one of Rome’s largest feline colonies.
Insula of the Ara Coeli
It’s such a pity that this wonderful place is hardly noticed by the crowds. Probably its position slightly hidden from the main route or its being below modern-day street level are the culprits for it being so out of the radar even though one of the most important ancient ruins in Rome and revealing of the urban planning and development of Roman times.
To face the increasing overcrowding of the city between republican and imperial times, Romans started to build tall blocks of flats that would develop vertically instead of horizontally. From the street, if you look down over the fence, you can see all four floors the insula was originally built with, the shops (tabernae) of the ground floor, and beautiful frescoes on the upper level.